Intensive farming essay

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31 Plant scientists figured out several parameters related to the high yield and identified the related genes which control the plant height and tiller number. 34 With advances in molecular genetics, the mutant genes responsible for Arabidopsis thaliana genes (GA 20-oxidase, 35 ga1, 36 ga1-3 37 wheat reduced-height genes ( Rht ) 38 and a rice semidwarf gene ( sd1 ) 39 were cloned. These were identified as gibberellin biosynthesis genes or cellular signaling component genes. Stem growth in the mutant background is significantly reduced leading to the dwarf phenotype. Photosynthetic investment in the stem is reduced dramatically as the shorter plants are inherently more stable mechanically. Assimilates become redirected to grain production, amplifying in particular the effect of chemical fertilizers on commercial yield.

31 High-yielding Varieties edit The novel technological development of the Green revolution was the production of novel wheat cultivars. Agronomists bred cultivars of maize, wheat, and rice that are generally referred to as hyvs or " high-yielding varieties ". Hyvs have higher nitrogen-absorbing potential than other varieties. Since cereals that absorbed extra nitrogen would typically lodge, or fall over essay before harvest, semi-dwarfing genes were bred into their genomes. A japanese dwarf wheat cultivar Norin 10 developed by a japanese agronomist Gonjiro Inazuka, which was sent to Orville vogel at Washington State University by cecil Salmon, was instrumental in developing Green revolution wheat cultivars. IR8, the first widely implemented hyv rice to be developed by irri, was created through a cross between an Indonesian variety named "Peta" and a chinese variety named "dee-geo-woo-gen". S, when a food crisis happened in Asia, the spread of hyv rice was aggravated intensely. Norman Borlaug, who is usually recognized as the "Father of the Green revolution bred rust-resistant cultivars which have strong and firm stems, preventing them from falling over under extreme weather at high levels of fertilization. Cimmyt (Centro Internacional de mejoramiento de maiz y trigo—International Center for maize and Wheat Improvement) conducted these breeding programs and helped spread high-yielding varieties in Mexico and countries in Asia like india and pakistan. These programs successfully led the harvest double in these countries.

intensive farming essay

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The program has essays advanced yearly ever since. Various sources claim that the program has been an unusual success, hailing it as a "miracle". 30 Agricultural production and food security edit technologies edit new varieties of wheat and other grains were instrumental to the green revolution. The Green revolution spread technologies that already existed, but had not been widely implemented outside industrialized nations. Two kinds of technologies were used in the Green revolution and aim at cultivation and breeding area respectively. The technologies in cultivation are targeted at providing excellent growing conditions, which included modern irrigation projects, pesticides, and synthetic nitrogen fertilizer. The breeding technologies aimed at improving crop varieties developed through the conventional, science-based methods available at the time. These technologies included hybrids, combining modern genetics with selections.

intensive farming essay

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26 These programs have generally been less successful. Reasons cited include widespread corruption, insecurity, a lack of infrastructure, and a general lack of will on the part of the governments. Yet environmental factors, such as the availability of water for irrigation, the high diversity in slope and soil types in one given area are also reasons why the Green revolution is not so successful in Africa. 27 A help recent program in western Africa is attempting to introduce a new high-yielding 'family' of rice varieties known as " New Rice for Africa " (nerica). Nerica varieties yield about 30 more rice under normal conditions, and can double yields with small amounts of fertilizer and very basic irrigation. However, the program has been beset by problems getting the rice into the hands of farmers, and to date the only success has been in guinea, where it currently accounts for 16 of rice cultivation. 28 After a famine in 2001 and years of chronic hunger and poverty, in 2005 the small African country of Malawi launched the "Agricultural Input Subsidy Program" by which vouchers are given to smallholder farmers to buy subsidized nitrogen fertilizer and maize seeds. 29 Within its first year, the program was reported to have had extreme success, producing the largest maize harvest of the country's history, enough to feed the country with tons of maize left over.

23 Methods like agroecosystem Analysis and Farming System Research have been adopted to gain a more holistic view of agriculture. Brazil's agricultural revolution edit Brazil's vast inland cerrado region was regarded as unfit for farming before the 1960s because the soil was too acidic and poor in nutrients, according to norman Borlaug. However, from the 1960s, vast quantities of lime (pulverised chalk or limestone) were poured on the soil to reduce acidity. The effort went on for decades; by the late 1990s, between 14 million and 16 million tonnes of lime were being spread on Brazilian fields each year. The quantity rose to 25 million tonnes in 20, equalling around five tonnes of lime per hectare. As a result, Brazil has become the world's second biggest soybean exporter. Soybeans are also widely used in animal feed, and the large volume of soy produced in Brazil has contributed to Brazil's rise to become the biggest exporter of beef and poultry in the world. 24 several parallels can also be found in Argentina's boom in soybean production as well. 25 Problems in Africa edit There have been numerous attempts to introduce the successful concepts from the mexican and Indian projects into Africa.

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intensive farming essay

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De datta published his findings that IR8 obesity rice yielded about 5 tons per hectare with no fertilizer, and almost 10 tons per hectare under optimal conditions. This was 10 times the yield of traditional rice. 21 IR8 was a shredders success throughout Asia, and dubbed the "Miracle rice". IR8 was also developed into semi-dwarf IR36. In the 1960s, rice yields in India were about two tons per hectare; by the mid-1990s, they had risen to six tons per hectare. In the 1970s, rice cost about 550 a ton; in 2001, it cost under 200 a ton.

22 India became one of the world's most successful rice producers, and is now a major rice exporter, shipping nearly.5 million tons in 2006. Consultative group on International Agricultural Research cgiar edit In 1970, foundation officials proposed a worldwide network of agricultural research centers under a permanent secretariat. This was further supported and developed by the world Bank ; on, the consultative group on International Agricultural Research (cgiar) was established. Co-sponsored by the fao, ifad and undp. Cgiar has added many research centers throughout the world. Cgiar has responded, at least in part, to criticisms of Green revolution methodologies. This began in the 1980s, and mainly was a result of pressure from donor organizations.

In 1966, one of the breeding lines became a new cultivar, ir8. 15 IR8 required the use of fertilizers and pesticides, but produced substantially higher yields than the traditional cultivars. Annual rice production in the Philippines increased from.7.7 million tons in two decades. 16 The switch to ir8 rice made the Philippines a rice exporter for the first time in the 20th century. 17 Start in India edit see also: Green revolution in India in 1961, India was on the brink of mass famine.


Additional citation(s) needed 18 Norman Borlaug was invited to India by the adviser to the Indian minister of agriculture. Despite bureaucratic hurdles imposed by India's grain monopolies, the ford foundation and Indian government collaborated to import wheat seed from the International maize and Wheat Improvement Center (cimmyt). Punjab was selected by the Indian government to be the first site to try the new crops because of its reliable water supply and a history of agricultural success. India began its own Green revolution program of plant breeding, irrigation development, and financing of agrochemicals. 19 India soon adopted IR8 a semi-dwarf rice variety developed by the International Rice research Institute (irri) that could produce more grains of rice per plant when grown with certain fertilizers and irrigation. 20 In 1968, Indian agronomist.

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In Mexico, it also served political ends, separating peasant agriculture based on the ejido and considered one of the victories of the mexican revolution, from agribusiness that requires large-scale land ownership, irrigation, specialized seeds, fertilizers, and pesticides, machinery, and a low-wage paid labor force. The government created the mexican Agricultural Program (MAP) to be the lead organization in raising productivity. One of their successes was wheat production, with varieties the agency's scientists helped create dominating oliver wheat production as early as 1951 (70 1965 (80 and 1968 (90). 13 Mexico became the showcase for extending the Green revolution to other areas of Latin America and beyond, into Africa and Asia. New breeds of maize, beans, along with wheat produced bumper crops with proper inputs (such as fertilizer and pesticides) and careful cultivation. Many mexican farmers who had been dubious about the scientists or hostile to them (often a mutual relationship of discord) came to see the scientific approach to agriculture worth adopting. 14 In rice: IR8 and the Philippines edit In 1960, business the government of the republic of the Philippines with the ford foundation and the rockefeller foundation established irri (International Rice research Institute). A rice crossing between dee-geo-woo-gen and Peta was done at irri in 1962.

intensive farming essay

10 Mexico was the recipient of Green revolution knowledge and technology, it was an active participant with financial support from the government for agriculture as well as Mexican agronomists. Although the mexican revolution had broken the back of the hacienda system and land reform in development Mexico had by 1940 distributed a large expanse of land in central and southern Mexico, agricultural productivity had fallen. During the administration of Manuel avila camacho (194046 the government put resources into developing new breeds of plants and partnered with the rockefeller foundation. 11 In 1943, the mexican government founded the International maize and Wheat Improvement Center (cimmyt which became a base for international agricultural research. Agriculture in Mexico had been a sociopolitical issue, a key factor in some regions' participation in the mexican revolution. It was also a technical issue, which the development of a cohort trained agronomists, who were to advise peasants how to increase productivity. 12 In the post-World War ii era, the government sought development in agriculture that bettered technological aspects of agriculture in regions that were not dominated by small-scale peasant cultivators. This drive for transforming agriculture would have the benefit of keeping Mexico self-sufficient in food and in the political sphere with the cold War, potentially stem unrest and the appeal of Communism. 11 Technical aid can be seen as also serving political ends in the international sphere.

in Mexico It has been argued that "during the twentieth century two 'revolutions' transformed rural Mexico: the mexican revolution (19101920) and the Green revolution (19501970. 6 With the support of the mexican government, the. Government, the United Nations, the food and Agriculture Organization (fao and the rockefeller foundation, mexico made a concerted effort to transform agricultural productivity, particularly with irrigated rather than dry-land cultivation in its northwest, to solve its problem of lack of food self-sufficiency. 7 In the center and south of Mexico, where large-scale production faced challenges, agricultural production languished. 8 Increased production meant food self-sufficiency in Mexico to feed its growing and urbanizing population, with the number of calories consumed per Mexican increasing. 9 Technology was seen as a valuable way to feed the poor, and would relieve some pressure of the land redistribution process.

2, both the, ford foundation and the, rockefeller foundation were heavily involved. One key leader was, norman Borlaug, the "Father of the Green revolution who received the. Nobel peace Prize in 1970. He is credited with saving over a billion people from starvation. The basic approach was the development of high-yielding varieties of cereal grains, expansion of irrigation infrastructure, modernization of management techniques, distribution of hybridized seeds, synthetic fertilizers, and pesticides to farmers. The term "Green revolution" was first used in a march 8, 1968, speech by the administrator of the. Agency for International development (usaid william. Gaud, who noted the spread of the new technologies: "These and other developments in the field of agriculture contain small the makings of a new revolution.

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For other uses, see, green revolution (disambiguation). After the second World War, increased deployment of technologies including pesticides, herbicides, and fertilizers as well as new breeds of high yield crops greatly increased global food production. The, green revolution, or, third Agricultural revolution, refers to a set of research and the development of technology transfer initiatives occurring between the 1930s and the late 1960s make (with prequels in the work of the agrarian geneticist. Nazareno Strampelli in the 1920s and 1930s that increased agricultural production worldwide, particularly in the developing world, beginning most markedly in the late 1960s. 1, the initiatives resulted in the adoption of new technologies, including. New, high-yielding varieties (HYVs) of cereals, especially dwarf wheats and rices, in association with chemical fertilizers and agro-chemicals, and with controlled water-supply (usually involving irrigation ) and new methods of cultivation, including mechanization. All of these together were seen as a 'package of practices' to supersede 'traditional' technology and to be adopted as a whole.


intensive farming essay
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  5. by engaging themselves in a variety of activities which include; theatre performance, getting involved in sports, and intensive farming. The population density is high, antibiotic usage is high, food waste is high, and sewage output is high in intensive fish farming. Intensive farming and excessive use of fertilizers and pesticides have led to over-exploitation of land and water resources. Intensive farming — agricultural subsidy environmental effects of meat production Intensive animal farming Intensive crop farming.

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  7. India into a food-surplus country.79 The state is witnessing serious consequences of intensive farming using chemicals and pesticides. mechanized, non- intensive form of plant cultivation performed non-repetitively on a plot of land; in contrast, agriculture is intensive. Beginning about 5,000 years ago, the development of intensive farming methods became necessary. Essay word limit rules ib extended, essay, free sample (Click the image to enlarge).

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