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Theophrastus wrote a separate work On Mining, which like most of his writings is a lost work. Pliny the Elder makes clear references to his use of On Stones in his Naturalis Historia of 77 ad, while updating and making much new information available on minerals himself. Although Pliny's treatment of the subject is more extensive, theophrastus is more systematic and his work is comparatively free from fable and magic, although he did describe lyngurium, a gemstone supposedly formed of the solidified urine of the lynx (the best ones coming from wild. From both of these early texts was to emerge the science of mineralogy, and ultimately geology. Pliny is especially observant on crystal habit and mineral hardness, for example. Philosophy edit The extent to which Theophrastus followed Aristotle's doctrines, or defined them more accurately, or conceived them in a different form, and what additional structures of thought he placed upon them, can only be partially determined because of the loss of so many. 44 Many of his opinions have to be reconstructed from the works of later writers such as Alexander of Aphrodisias and Simplicius.

He also deals with precious stones, emeralds, amethysts, onyx, jasper, etc., and describes a envelopes variety of "sapphire" that was blue with veins of gold, and thus was presumably lapis-lazuli. 51 he knew that pearls came from shell-fish, that coral came from India, and speaks of the fossilized remains of organic life. 51 Theophrastus made the first known reference to the phenomenon, now known to be caused by pyroelectricity, that the mineral lyngurium (probably tourmaline ) attracts straws and bits of wood when heated. 54 he also considers the practical uses of various stones, such as the minerals necessary for the manufacture of glass; for the production of various pigments of paint such as ochre ; and for the manufacture of plaster. 51 he discusses the use of the touchstone for assaying gold and gold alloys, an important property which would require the genius of Archimedes to resolve in quantitative detail when he was asked to investigate the suspected debasement of a crown a few years later. Many of the rarer minerals were found in mines, and he mentions the famous copper mines of Cyprus and the even more famous silver mines, presumably of laurium near Athens, and upon which the wealth of the city was based, as well as referring. The laurium silver mines, which were the property of the state, were usually leased for a fixed sum and a percentage on the working. Towards the end of the fifth century the output fell, partly owing to the Spartan occupation of Decelea. But the mines continued to be worked, though Strabo records that in his time the tailings were being worked over, and pausanias speaks of the mines as a thing of the past. The ancient workings, consisting of shafts and galleries for excavating the ore, and washing tables for extracting the metal, may still be seen.

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44 Physics edit we also possess in fragments a history of Physics (περ φυσικν στοριν). To this class of work belong the still extant sections on Fire, on the winds, and on the signs of Waters, winds, and Storms. 48 Various smaller scientific fragments have been collected in the editions of Johann Gottlob Schneider (181821) and Friedrich Wimmer (1842—62) and in Hermann Usener 's Analecta Theophrastea. Metaphysics edit The metaphysics (anachronistic Greek title: θεοφράστου τν μετ τ φυσικά 49 in nine chapters (also known as On First Principles was considered a fragment of a larger work by Usener in his edition (Theophrastos, metaphysica, bonn, 1890 but according to ross and Fobes. X) and this opinion is now widely accepted. There is no reason for assigning this work to some other author because it is not noticed in Hermippus and Andronicus, especially as Nicolaus of Damascus had already mentioned. 44 On stones edit In his treatise On Stones (περ λίθων which was to be used as a source for other lapidaries until at least the renaissance, theophrastus classified rocks and gems based on their behavior when heated, further grouping minerals by common twist properties, such. He also comments on the different hardnesses of minerals. Theophrastus describes different marbles ; mentions coal, which he says is used for heating by metal-workers; describes the various metal ores ; and knew that pumice-stones had a volcanic origin.

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The book has been regarded by some as an independent work; others incline to the view that the sketches were written from time to time by Theophrastus, and collected and edited after his death; others, again, regard the Characters as part of a larger systematic. Theophrastus has found many imitators in this kind of writing, notably joseph Hall (1608 sir Thomas overbury (161416 bishop Earle (1628 and jean de la bruyère (1688 who also translated the Characters. George Eliot also took inspiration from Theophrastus' Characters, most notably in her book of caricatures, Impressions of Theophrastus Such. Writing the " character sketch " as a scholastic exercise also originated in Theophrastus's typology. On sensation edit a treatise On Sense perception (περ ασθήσεων) and its objects is important for a knowledge of the doctrines of the more ancient Greek philosophers regarding the subject. A paraphrase and commentary on this work was written by Priscian of Lydia in the sixth century. 45 With this type movie of work we may connect the fragments on Smells, on Fatigue, on dizziness, on Sweat, on Swooning, on Palsy, and on Honey.

F Christian Wimmer identified two manuscripts of first quality, the codex Urbinas in the vatican Library, which was not made known. Schneider, who made the first modern critical edition, 181821, and the excerpts in the codex Parisiensis in the bibliothèque nationale de France. The standard author abbreviation Theophr. Is used to indicate this person as the author when citing a botanical name. 47 On moral characters edit his book characters (θικο χαρακτρες if it is indeed his, deserves a separate mention. The work contains thirty brief, vigorous, and trenchant outlines of moral types, which form a most valuable picture of the life of his time, and in fact of human nature in general. They are the first recorded attempt at systematic character writing.

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The Enquiry into Plants was originally ten books, of which nine survive. The work is arranged into a system whereby plants are classified according to their modes of generation, their localities, their sizes, and according to their practical uses such as foods, juices, herbs, etc. 45 The first book deals with the parts of plants; the second book with the reproduction of plants and the times and manner of sowing; the third, fourth, and fifth books are devoted to trees, their types, their locations, and their practical applications; the sixth. 45 On the causes of Plants was originally eight books, of which six survive. It concerns the growth of plants; the influences on their fecundity; the proper times they should be sown and reaped; the methods of preparing the soil, manuring it, and the use of tools; and of the smells, tastes, and properties of many types of plants.

45 The work deals mainly with the economical uses of plants rather than their medicinal uses, although the latter is sometimes mentioned. 45 A book on wines and a book on plant smells may have once been part of the complete work. 46 Although these works contain many absurd assignment and fabulous statements, they include valuable observations concerning the functions and properties of plants. 45 Theophrastus detected the process of germination and realized the importance of climate and soil to plants. Much of the information on the Greek plants may have come from his own observations, as he is known to have travelled throughout Greece, and to have had a botanical garden of his own; but the works also profit from the reports on plants. 5 Theophrastus' Enquiry into Plants was first published in a latin translation by Theodore gaza, at Treviso, 1483; e in its original Greek it first appeared from the press of Aldus Manutius at Venice, 149598, from a third-rate manuscript, which, like the majority of the.

This is testified to not only by a number of treatises on individual subjects of zoology, of which, besides the titles, only fragments remain, but also by his books On Stones, his Enquiry into Plants, and On the causes of Plants (see below which have. In politics, also, he seems to have trodden in the footsteps of Aristotle. Besides his books on the State (πολιτικν and πολιτικο we find"d various treatises on Education (περ παιδείας βασιλέως and περ παιδείας on royalty (περ βασιλείας, περ παιδείας βασιλέως and πρς Κάσανδρον περ βασιλείας on the best State (περ τς ρίστης πολιτείας on Political Morals. 33 he also wrote on oratory and poetry. 34 Theophrastus, without doubt, departed further from Aristotle in his ethical writings, as also in his metaphysical investigations of motion, the soul, and God.


Besides these writings, Theophrastus wrote several collections of problems, out of which some things at least have passed into the Problems that have come down to us under the name of Aristotle, 37 and commentaries, 38 partly dialogues, 39 to which probably belonged the Erotikos. Many of his surviving works exist only in fragmentary form. "The style of these works, as of the botanical books, suggests that, as in the case of Aristotle, what we possess consists of notes for lectures or notes taken of lectures his translator Arthur. 5 "There is no literary charm; the sentences are mostly compressed and highly elliptical, to the point sometimes of obscurity". 5 The text of these fragments and extracts is often so corrupt that there is a certain plausibility to the well-known story that the works of Aristotle and Theophrastus were allowed to languish in the cellar of Neleus of Scepsis and his descendents. 44 On plants edit main article: Historia plantarum (Theophrastus) The most important of his books are two large botanical treatises, Enquiry into Plants (περ φυτν στορία, generally known as Historia plantarum and On the causes of Plants (περ φυτν ατιν which constitute the most important.

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His writing probably differed little from Aristotle's treatment of the same themes, though supplementary shakespeare in details. Like aristotle, most of his writings are lost works. Thus Theophrastus, like aristotle, had composed a first and second Analytic (ναλυτικν προτέρων and ναλυτικν στέρων). He had also written books on Topics (νηγμένων τόπων, τοπικν and τ πρ τν τόπων on the Analysis of Syllogisms (περ ναλύσεως συλογισμν and περ συλογισμν λύσεως on Sophisms (σοφισμάτων) and on Affirmation and Denial (περ καταφάσεως κα ποφάσεως) as strange well as on the natural. Frontispiece to the illustrated 1644 edition of the Enquiry into Plants ( Historia plantarum ) In addition, Theophrastus wrote on the warm and the cold (περ θερμο κα ψυχρο on Water (περ δατος fire (περ πυρóς the sea (περ θαλάτης on coagulation and Melting (περ. Likewise, we find mention of monographs of Theophrastus on the early Greek philosophers Anaximenes, anaxagoras, empedocles, archelaus, diogenes of Apollonia, democritus, which were made use of by simplicius ; and also on Xenocrates, against the Academics, and a sketch of the political doctrine of Plato. He studied general history, as we know from Plutarch 's lives of Lycurgus, solon, aristides, pericles, nicias, alcibiades, lysander, agesilaus, and Demosthenes, which were probably borrowed from the work on lives (περ βίων). But his main efforts were to continue the labours of Aristotle in natural history.

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B Aristotle likewise bequeathed to rehab him his library and the originals of his works, c and designated him as his successor at the lyceum. 10 Eudemus of Rhodes also had some claims to this position, and Aristoxenus is said to have resented Aristotle's choice. Theophrastus presided over the peripatetic school for thirty-five years, and died at the age of eighty-five according to diogenes. D he is said to have remarked "we die just when we are beginning to live". 14 Under his guidance the school flourished greatly — there were at one period more than 2000 students, diogenes affirms, and at his death, according to the terms of his will preserved by diogenes, he bequeathed to it his garden with house and colonnades. The comic poet Menander was among his pupils. His popularity was shown in the regard paid to him by Philip, cassander, and Ptolemy, and by the complete failure of a charge of impiety brought against him. 16 he was honored with a public funeral, and "the whole population of Athens, honouring him greatly, followed him to the grave." he was succeeded as head of the lyceum by Strato of Lampsacus. Writings edit From the lists of diogenes, giving 227 titles, it appears that the activity of Theophrastus extended over the whole field of contemporary knowledge.

(from Ancient Greek θεός "god" and φράζειν "to phrase. 7 After receiving instruction in philosophy in Lesbos from one Alcippus, he moved to Athens, where he may have studied under Plato. A he became friends with Aristotle, and when Plato died (348/7 BC) Theophrastus may have joined Aristotle in his self-imposed exile from Athens. When Aristotle moved to mytilene on Lesbos in 345/4, it is very likely that he did so at the urging of Theophrastus. It seems that it was on Lesbos that Aristotle and Theophrastus began their research into natural science, with Aristotle studying animals and Theophrastus studying plants. Theophrastus probably accompanied Aristotle to macedonia when Aristotle was appointed tutor to Alexander the Great in 343/2. Around 335 bc, theophrastus moved with Aristotle to Athens, where Aristotle began teaching in the lyceum. When, after the death of Alexander, anti-macedonian feeling forced Aristotle to leave athens, Theophrastus remained behind as head ( scholarch ) of the peripatetic school, a position he continued to hold after Aristotle's death in 322/1. Aristotle in his will made him guardian of his children, including Nicomachus with whom he was close.

His successor as head of writing the school was. The interests of Theophrastus were wide ranging, extending from biology and physics to ethics and metaphysics. His two surviving botanical works, Enquiry into Plants (Historia plantarum) and, on the causes of Plants, were an important influence. There are also surviving works. On Moral Characters, on Sense perception, on Stones, and fragments on Physics and Metaphysics. In philosophy, he studied grammar and language and continued Aristotle's work on logic. He also regarded space as the mere arrangement and position of bodies, time as an accident of motion, and motion as a necessary consequence of all activity. Citation needed In ethics, he regarded happiness as depending on external influences as well as on virtue. Contents Most of the biographical information we have of Theophrastus was provided by diogenes laërtius ' lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers, written more than four hundred years after Theophrastus' time.

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Theophrastus ( /θiəfræstəs/ ; Greek : θεόφραστος, theόphrastos ;. 287 bc a greek native. Eresos in, lesbos, 4 was the successor to, aristotle in the, peripatetic school. Athens at a young age and initially studied. After Plato's death, he attached himself to Aristotle who took report to Theophrastus his writings. When Aristotle fled Athens, Theophrastus took over as head of the. 4, theophrastus presided over the peripatetic school for thirty-six years, during which time the school flourished greatly. He is often considered the father of botany for his works on plants. After his death, the Athenians honoured him with a public funeral.


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